# Continuous integration in Python, 4: set up Travis-CI

This is the fourth post in my Continuous integration (CI) in Python series, and the one that puts the "continuous" in CI! For the introductory three posts, see:

### Introduction to Travis-CI

Once you've set up your tests locally, it does you no good if you don't remember to run them! Travis-CI makes this seamless, because it will check out your code and run you tests for each and every commit you push to GitHub! (This is even more important when you are receiving pull requests on GitHub: the tests will be run online, without you having to individually check out each PR and run the tests on your machine!)

This is what continuous integration is all about. Once upon a time, the common practice was to pile on new features on a codebase. Then, come release time, there would be a feature freeze, and some time would be spent cleaning up code and removing bugs. In continuous integration, instead, no new feature is allowed into the codebase until it is bug free, as demonstrated by the test suite.

# Continuous integration in Python 3: set up your test configuration files

This is the third post in my series on continuous integration (CI) in Python. For the first two posts, see 1: automated tests with pytest, and 2: measuring test coverage.

By now, you've got a bunch of tests and doctests set up in your project, which you run with the command:

\$ py.test --doctest-modules --cov . --cov-report term-missing


# Continuous integration in Python, Volume 2: measuring test coverage

(Edit: I initially thought it would be cute to number from 0. But it turns out it becomes rather obnoxious to relate English (first, second, ...) to 0-indexing. So this was formerly volume 1. But everything else remains the same.)

This is the second post in a series about setting up continuous integration for a Python project from scratch. For the first post, see Automated tests with pytest.

After you've written some test cases for a tiny project, it's easy to check what code you have automatically tested. For even moderately big projects, you will need tools that automatically check what parts of your code are actually tested. The proportion of lines of code that are run at least once during your tests is called your test coverage.

# Continuous integration in Python, Volume 1: automated tests with pytest

(Edit: I initially thought it would be cute to number from 0. But it turns out it becomes rather obnoxious to relate English (first, second, …) to 0-indexing. So this was formerly volume 0. But everything else remains the same.)

I just finished the process of setting up continuous integration from scratch for one of my projects, cellom2tif, a simple image file converter/liberator. I thought I would write a blog post about that process, but it has slowly mutated into a hefty document that I thought would work better as a series. I'll cover automated testing, test coverage, and how to get these to run automatically for your project with Travis-CI and Coveralls.

Without further ado, here goes the first post: how to set up automated testing for your Python project using pytest.

# Use pmset to restore your Mac's instant-wake after upgrading to Yosemite

I just upgraded to Mac OS X Yosemite Beta 3, and sure enough, Apple has once again broken my time-to-deep-sleep setting. After I upgraded, I noticed that my computer took a few seconds to wake from sleep, rather than the usual instant-on that defined OS X for so long. I checked pmset, Mac's power management command-line utility:

sudo pmset -a standbydelay 86400


Check in for a new post come next upgrade! (Mammoth?)

# Read microscopy images to numpy arrays with python-bioformats

The python-bioformats library lets you seamlessly read microscopy images into numpy arrays from pretty much any file format.

I recently explained how to use Fiji's Jython interpreter to open BioFormats images, do some processing, and save the result to a standard format such as TIFF. Since then, the CellProfiler team has released an incredible tool, the python-bioformats library. It uses the Java Native Interface (JNI) to access the Java BioFormats library and give you back a numpy array within Python. In other words, it's magic.

# SciPy 2014: an extremely useful conference with a diversity problem

I just got back home from the SciPy 2014 conference in Austin, TX. Here are my thoughts after this year's conference.

Since my first SciPy in 2012, I've decided to prioritise programming conferences over scientific ones, because the value I get for my time is just that much higher. At a scientific conference, I certainly become aware of way-cool stuff going on in other research labs in my area. Once I get home, however, I go back to whatever I was doing. In contrast, at programming conferences, I become aware of new tools and practices that change the way I do science. In his keynote this year, Greg Wilson said of Software Carpentry, "We save researchers a day a week for the rest of their careers." I feel the same way about SciPy in general.

In the 2012 sprints, I learned about GitHub Pull Requests and code review, the lingua franca of open source development today. I can't express how useful that's been. I also started my ongoing collaboration with the scikit-image project, which has enabled my research to reach far more users than I ever could have achieved on my own.

No scientific conference I've been to has had such an impact on my science output, nor can I imagine one doing so.

# A clever use of SciPy's ndimage.generic_filter for n-dimensional image processing

This year I am privileged to be a mentor in the Google Summer of Code for the scikit-image project, as part of the Python Software Foundation organisation. Our student, Vighnesh Birodkar, recently came up with a clever use of SciPy’s ndimage.generic_filter that is certainly worth sharing widely.

Vighnesh is tasked with implementing region adjacency graphs and graph based methods for image segmentation. He initially wrote specific functions for 2D and 3D images, and I suggested that he should merge them: either with n-dimensional code, or, at the very least, by making 2D a special case of 3D. He chose the former, and produced extremely elegant code. Three nested for loops and a large number of neighbour computations were replaced by a function call and a simple loop. Read on to find out how.

# Elsevier et al's pricing douchebaggery exposed

Ted Bergstrom and a few colleagues have just come out with an epic paper in which they reveal how much for-profit academic publishing companies charge university libraries, numbers that had previously been kept secret. The paper is ostensibly in the field of economics, but it could be more accurately described as "sticking-it-to-the-man-ology".

This paragraph in the footnotes was particularly concise and fun to read:

Elsevier contested our contract request from Washington State University on the grounds that their pricing policy was a trade secret, and brought suit against the university. The Superior Court judge ruled that Washington State University could release the contracts to us. Elsevier and Springer also contested our request for contracts from the University of Texas (UT) System. The Texas state attorney general opined that the UT System was required to release copies of all of these contracts.
In other words: in the interest of full disclosure, suck it, Elsevier!